Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa) is a tropical tree native to the jungles of Southeast Asia. It has been used by people in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia for centuries mostly to increase endurance for manual labor. Unlike many herbal remedies, the active constituents of Kratom, mitragynine and 7-OH-mitragynine have been identified and characterized. Both compounds are chemically related to yohimbine, but bind to mu, delta and kappa opiate receptors in the body and brain (mu opiate receptors underlie the pleasant and addictive effects of opiates like morphine and heroin).
Previously unknown in the west, it is becoming increasingly popular due to the activities of internet retailers, many of whom advertise it as a “legal high”. While this is true, Kratom has many legitimate uses aside from intoxication and has enormous potential as an alternative medicine for treating some very difficult to manage conditions.
Effects: In low doses, Kratom appears to be stimulant-like, providing extra energy and endurance. It is in higher doses that Kratom’s opiate-like effects become clear and users experience sedation, nausea and euphoria. Due to binding affinities for opiate receptors throughout the body, including the brain, Kratom’s effects are similar to many opiate analgesics including codeine and morphine. It produces states of intoxication that are similar to Opium and can be habit forming, albeit in a less intense way. Side effects of opiates can also be also present including itchiness and constipation.
Doses: The strength of Kratom is highly variable depending on the strain, supplier and time of year. A low dose varies from 2-4 grams and a high dose ranges from 5-10 grams. Doses higher than 10 grams, especially of high grade Kratom invariably cause unpleasant side effects including nausea, vomiting and motor agitation. Overdose and death has not been recorded with Kratom alone though it was detected in the blood of at least at least one polydrug death in Asia involving a whole cocktail of more harmful substances.
Method of consumption: There are various methods of consuming or extracting Kratom which can be acquired in various forms including whole leaf, crushed leaf and as a powder. The powdered form is easiest to deal with and will produce the greatest effect for the least amount of effort.
The simplest method of consuming kratom is to simply swallow the dry powder. This can be done relatively painlessly by pouring a little bit of water in the mouth, tilting one’s head back so that the water covers the throat, dumping in a pre-measured amount of Kratom from a piece of paper folded in half and swallowing. If done right the Kratom eater may not even taste the Kratom.
Eating Kratom dry delays the onset of effects and prolongs their duration. For a more rapid onset, Kratom can be simmered briefly in boiling water and then consumed as a tea. Due to the low solubility of active alkaloids in water, it is recommended that the plant material be consumed with the tea rather than filtered out.
Extracts: Alkaloids in Kratom, including mitragynine and 7-OH-mitragynine cannot readily be dissolved in water but can be extracted with other solvents. However, the effects of Kratom appear to be mediated by a wide range of different alkaloids and it is for this reason that extracts, sometimes labelled 10x, 30X or even 100X are often less potent than unaltered 1X plain leaf although one reported case of a a deadly overdose in Thailand involved Kratom extract in combination with other very strong drugs.
Medicinal Benefits and Heath Effects: Kratom has been used in Thailand traditionally to treat diarrhea and studies in rats have shown it to be as effective as Loperimide (Immodium AD) especially for the treatment of severe diarrhea (Chittrakarn, 2007).
Recently, chronic opiate users have begun to use Kratom for the treatment of opiate withdrawal (Vicknasingam, 2010). In most cases, Kratom can completely replace the opiate of abuse and relieves withdrawal symptoms even in very severe opiate users such as IV heroin addicts. Kratom itself can cause a physical dependance but its withdrawal symptoms are no where near as severe as that of illegal or prescription opiates and many addicts have found it useful to convert their addiction to Kratom first before quitting completely.
Because of its biological similarity to opiate analgesics, Kratom can successfully be used as an alternative for moderate to severe pain. It is less habit-forming than drugs such as oxycodone, morphine or hydrocodone that are traditionally used to treat conditions such as chronic back pain and may be just as effective.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that Kratom may be useful in alleviating symptoms of restles leg syndrome (RLS) although once habituated, withdrawal symptoms may make the condition temporarily worse.
Some of the compounds found in Kratom have been shown to have antioxidant properties and therefore are considered to be of significant health benefit. Additionally, consumption of Kratom can help add fiber to the digestive tract.
Legality: Kratom is completely legal in much of the west, including the United States and Canada. It is illegal to possess or sell in Thailand, Malaysia or Australia but is legal in Indonesia where much of the Kratom in western markets originate. It is not approved for human consumption by the FDA in the U.S. or relevant agencies in Canada and for this reason is not widely marketed at a large scale.
Sources: Kratom can be purchased in large quantities directly from growers but most customers in the United States and Canada prefer to order personal use quantities from reputable Kratom vendors in their own countries. Discretion is advisable when purchasing Kratom due to the large number of unscrupulous online retailers selling sub-par or even fake Kratom that is dangerous to consume.
Most Canadian customers buy from American sites but more Kratom stores from Canada, such as madamkratom.ca, have been appearing and offer lower shipping costs, faster delivery, and competitive prices. Nonetheless, many customers continue to order from American sources due to a lack of information or a perceived better value from U.S. sites.
Conclusion: Far from being just a “legal high” like Salvia, Kratom offers many health benefits for those interested in alternative medicines and may be a major godsend for those battling opiate addiction. While it is still largely unknown in the west, it is slowly becoming more popular and is readily acquired online.
References: Chittrakarn S, Sawangjaroen K, Prasettho S, Janchawee B, Keawpradub N. Inhibitory effects of kratom leaf extract (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) on the rat gastrointestinal tract. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Feb 28;116(1):173-8. Epub 2007 Nov 28.
Balasingam Vicknasingama,, Suresh Narayananb, Goh Teik Benga, Sharif Mahsufi Mansora The informal use of ketum (Mitragyna speciosa) for opioid withdrawal in the northern states of peninsular Malaysia and implications for drug substitution therapy. International Journal of Drug Policy 21 (2010) 283288
Wichian Tungtananuwat and Somsong Lawanprasert. Fatal 4×100; Home-made Kratom Juice Cocktail. J Health Res 2010, 24(1): 43-47
More than of a million children are admitted at the hospital every year for brain injury. Since brain injury affects so many children, there have been many studies concerning the long term effects of brain injury on a person. A new study indicates that children who have a concussion or other traumatic brain injury are much more prone to developing headaches for a period of up to a year after the incident. This is different than children who have suffered from a bodily injury which indicates that they are much less likely to develop headaches. The results direct us to a difficult long term problem for children and their family because, according to researchers, there are no treatments to take care of the lingering headaches. Dr. Heidi Blume at the Childrens Research Institute in Seattle, Washington acknowledged that “Its an issue because they may have problems with sleep, and the headaches can make it harder to concentrate.”
Dr. Blume and her coworkers tracked more than 450 kids that were admitted into the emergency room due to brain injury accidents. Out of those over 450 children, 60 of those children had a moderate or severe injury whereas 402 had a mild injury. The children with brain injury cited many different causes including car accidents, falls, playing sports, and general rough play.
Dr. Blume and her colleagues compared all of the injury cases that they have seen and came up with some interesting data. Included in that data was a the information from diaries that Dr. Blume asked the children and their parents to keep which complied all of the headaches that they sustained over a period of a year. The data showed that after only three months, 43 out of every 100 kids who experienced some form of mild brain injury had headaches. Further, 37 out of 100 complained of headaches in the moderate or severe injury category.
The data is in direct conflict with what most doctors would foresee. More specifically, doctors are unsure how more headaches have been occurring in mild brain injury victims instead of severe brain injury victims. Karen Barlow of Alberta Childrens Hospital in Canada commented on this conundrum by stating that “That is a conundrum that we dont fully understand, but its been noted before” in research of adults. Barlow went on to explain that “There might be something about the moderate and severe traumatic brain injuries that interfere with the mechanisms of sensing pain, but we havent gotten to the bottom of that.” Thus, this data is still not known and researchers will continue to attempt to understand the full complexity of brain injuries.
If you or a loved one has suffered a serious injury or death of a loved one, the last thing you want to think about is saving money to pay for a California brain injury attorney. Accordingly, the Ginny Walia Law Offices handle cases on a contingency fee basis. This means that if you do not recover, then you will not be charged for any legal fees. Our fee structure is based on a percentage of the amount that we obtain for you. Further, we will work with you to settle your case.
Our personal injury attorneys will never settle your case without your authorization. California personal injury lawyers at Ginny Walia Law Offices will do everything possible to settle your brain injury accident case out of court without the delay of a full trial.
Speak to a California personal injury attorney now: If you or a loved one has suffered a brain injury, we can help. Please call us now at 1 (510) 887-5910 for a free no obligation consultation.
More than 300 people, a number that only continues to grow, around the world, who are awaiting immigration visas, have filed legal notices against the Federal Court of Canada as they wait in a lengthy Canadian immigration backlog, some since 2004. It is important to note that this is not a class-action lawsuit. Thus, a court ruling would apply only to those involved in the litigation. This means, from a backlog of 900 000 applications, only 300 of them have access to a court ruling.
There were a great deal of Canadian immigration applications that were filed between 2008 and 2010, and even before February 2008, when new laws were brought in to fast-track new applications from skilled workers. However, there were also new laws that capped the number of skilled-worker applications. The skilled-worker backlog was reduced from 641,000 people to 314,000, with 140,000 applicants from the early phase of the program who are still waiting for a decision. Some applications have been in progress for as long as 26 months.
This is not the first time: the federal government has been faced with a legal situation due to backlogging and challenges by the court to new regulations from 2002 to 2003. In response, Ottawa offered a $2.9 million settlement to 105,000 backlogged applicants, agreeing to get rid of the new rule that affected pre-existing applications negatively
For more information, contact FWCanada Canadian Immigration Law Firm
As one of the most trusted Canadian immigration law firms, FWCanada will ensure that your application receives impeccable attention to detail. Our mission is to provide high quality legal services, in a transparent and efficient manner. Unfortunately, fraudulent and ineffective practice exists in most industries and Canadian immigration is no exception. Only lawyers who are members in good standing of a Canadian bar association, or members of the Canadian Society of Immigration Consultants are legally authorized to represent clients for the purposes of Canadian immigration. As the legal representative of all FWCanada clients, Attorney Marisa Feil has distinguished herself as a respected authority on Canadian immigration law. She is frequently contacted by government officials and other Canadian immigration lawyers for her expertise.
For more information, please contact FWCanada, Tel: 855-316-3555; Email: [emailprotected]; [emailprotected]
Follow us on Twitter: @fwcanada
Before you move to another country, you may want to take the time to talk to lawyers to find out what is required of you during this move. There are things that you will need to do differently in every country. Moving to the UK is not the same as moving to Brazil or Canada. You should ask the top UK immigration lawyers a few different things to make sure that you do not make a mistake that could make it impossible for you to move to the country. If you work things out with them beforehand, you can save yourself a lot of time and trouble. Below are a few things that should be addressed.
First of all, you need to ask about the paperwork. Becoming a citizen of another country is not easy. There will be many forms that you have to fill out. You will need to provide proof that you really are who you claim to be. If you have a family, you will also need to provide these things for each member. The sooner you can get this process started, the better. Ask the lawyer what paperwork you will need and where you can get it. You can then start to get things in order long before you want to move.
Next, you may want to ask about your children. If they are born in the UK, are they automatically citizens even though you are from somewhere else? Do they have a choice between the two countries? Is it possible for them to get dual citizenship so that they can live wherever they would like? It is good to ask about these things even if you do not plan to have any children at this time. You still should know what the ramifications of the move will be for anyone in your family. You need to find out what will be required later if you do end up having children. It is possible to come back to the lawyers and ask these questions later, but it is often best to do this before you move just in case it will impact your decision.
Finally, you should ask about the cost. What types of fees are there? Are there any expenses that you may not have considered? You will already have some idea about the cost of the move as far as travel and transportation are concerned. You need to know about any other fees so that you can make sure that you have enough money. You do not want to be surprised by a bill that you did not expect. If you are, it could make it financially impossible for you to carry your plans.
Introduction – For as little as $50,000 (total fee, complete) you can obtain a citizenship with passport in one of the Latin American Nations we work with. We do NOT work with Suriname, Guyana, Venezuela, Bolivia or French Guiana. These would be established and well respected nations. Time frame is 21 to 30 days, depending on the program. Passports are good for Visa free travel to Central and South America, European Union, most of Africa, and Asia. These passports are NOT good for visa free travel to USA or Canada. We offer nothing for the USA or Canada. You do have to come to the issuing country for four days to get started. This is for fingerprints, photographs and signatures. At the end of the process you return for another four days. Documents are issued directly to you from government offices in government buildings. Everything we do is lawful.
Economic Citizenships This is just one approach of several that can be used to obtain a second citizenship and passport. There are other approaches available as well. There are one or two countries offering economic based citizenships that like to state that they have the only lawful way to a second passport or a second citizenship. These statements are 100% untrue and are nothing more than marketing noise generated by the sellers of such services. We do offer legal programs for citizenships.
Diplomatic Passports These can be obtained as well. Time frame is 30-60 days. They also include a citizenship for life. The fee is $95,000 for one person. There is no family plan, sorry. These passports carry full diplomatic immunity and are issued for five years. To learn more about Diplomatic Passports please go here:
Sealed Private Name Changes – You can also affect a sealed in court records name change (extra fee of $15,000) for your new second citizenship. This can only be dome after the new country has jurisdiction over you. This occurs when you have your new citizenship. This takes an additional 30 to 60 days. No one will be able to go into any public database or public records and see that you had a name change. The name change feature makes these passports desirable for offshore banking. These countries do not tax any offshore-derived income so opening up bank accounts using your new identity is quite easy even in the most desirable jurisdictions like Switzerland, Singapore and Hong Kong.
Countries For Visa Free Travel The countries vary slightly regarding visa free travel. This is a general idea of the countries, which the passport will allow visa free travel into:
European Union (Schengen) Visa Free Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lichtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK.
European Union (Non-Schengen) Visa Free Andorra, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Gibraltar, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro.
Central America, South America and Caribbean Nations Visa Free Anguilla, Argentina, Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guinea, Greenland, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Barthes, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre, Saint Vincent and Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela.
Asia Visa Free Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Hong Kong, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Laos, Macau, Malaysia, Maldives, Nepal, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Syria, Timor-Leste, Turkey.
Oceania (Polynesia) Visa Free Cook Islands, French Polynesia, Micronesia, New Caledonia, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Tuvalu, Wallis and Futuna.
Africa Visa Free Cape Verde, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Kenya, Madagascar, Mayetta, Mozambique, Reunion, Seychelles, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia.
Documents Needed You need a passport and driver license. You must be able to travel to come here in Guatemala and to the country issuing you the citizenship.
Time Frame You start out by visiting our executive offices in the country you are seeking a passport/citizenship. You can come for 4-5 days and then leave returning in 21 days when the process is complete.
Fee The fee is $50,000 for one person, complete. The applicant pays their own airfare, hotel and meals.
Family Plan We can process a couple for $75,000. For children please inquire.
Payment The fee can be paid 50% at onset of work and 50% at completion. We do accept wire transfers and cash. Wires are sent to the law firm and are covered by attorney client privilege. Checks or Bank checks take 30 days to clear so we do not accept them.
Life is all about decisions! Our day to day life involves a lot of decision-making that could pertain to investments in property or financial products, filing income tax returns, matrimonial alliances, divorce, alimony, child support, adoption, separation, consumer matters, automobile claims, inheritance and many more. Anyone who is in the midst of taking a decision in any of the above matters must be well prepared. With easy access to information, things have become simpler; but without the support of a well-qualified and experienced legal advisor, one might not be able to use the available information in the most tactful manner.
Are we really adept at taking the right decision as and when required? Probably not! We need legal help in most matters. For instance, a person going through divorce would need suggestion on matters such as, alimony or child support. We need legal assistance in a multitude of matters. It is not always feasible to engage a different lawyer for each specialized area, as the expenses can be really high! In such cases, it makes more sense to get in touch with a law firm, which has expert lawyers in different verticals, on their panel. Like other professions, the legal profession is also highly specialized. A lawyer, who usually handles inheritance cases, might not be a good help in issues pertaining to business laws. Hence, it is essential to get appropriate legal help. A law firm usually gives access to specialised services of lawyers as per their domain expertise. Moreover, laws may vary from one region to another.
A legal advisor can offer apt legal assistance in all matters. It is always wise to hire a legal advisor for individuals and businesses. Engaging an efficient lawyer is a critical step in any business. It is important to consult a good business lawyer to get legal help in most aspects of a business. Whether it is basic compliance, copyright issues, corporate mergers, lawsuits, liability or anything else, a business lawyer can suggest you about business laws and proceedings. Even in individual matters, hiring a legal advisor is the best decision one can take. This ensures an easy access to all legal provisions. Be it insurance claims, tax issues, family disputes or any other concern, proper legal advice at the right time can resolve problems at an early stage, before they turn into bigger problems.
For individuals and businesses, it is advisable to seek the help of a good legal advisor, who has the expertise and acumen of dealing with court proceedings in a specific area and can offer customised and best suited legal help as per the client’s needs. One can avail the best legal consultancy services by engaging a law firm.
Jeff Bill has more than decade experience in handling legal matter for individual and business in Canada. The author has written various popular articles on Immigration solution, criminal defense as well as spouse sponsorship in Canada.
Immigration can be described as an act allows a foreigner to access the territory of overseas nations frequently and settle there permanently. The purpose of immigration can be different entirely depends on the intended applicants personal goal. However, they all have a common desire to get permanent residence in a foreign country. Meanwhile, the complication in immigration process certainly cant be ignored while explaining it one must be well aware of entire process to overcome this.
Planning for Canada immigration is often described as a great effort but, it is also need to be kept in mind that the country grants immigration visa only a limited number of people who successfully qualify the arduous eligibility criteria and capable of providing all the required documents. Those who are residing in Hyderabad, known for lavishing life and mouth watering meals, can reduce their stress at some extents by getting in touch with various immigration experts, while sucking into a stringent immigration work out. The Canada Immigration Consultant in Hyderabad is well identified for their quality of services at affordable costs.
The immigration experts in Hyderabad are known for providing the best assistance in choosing the right visa that suits clients work profile by focusing on various opportunities related to their occupation available in the country. Established a great goodwill in the market for catering desires of getting permanent resident in foreign countries of aspirants, the Canada Immigration Consultant in Hyderabad gave a reason to people to expand their horizon and dream more.
Being a great highlight of Immigration Consultant in Hyderabad, Abhinav, a well established name in immigration service, is one among a large number of immigration consultancies claimed immense success in fulfilling the desire of customers by making their task of obtaining immigration visa successful. Serving customers with full assurance of getting positive outcome is something projected as a great aspect of Abhinavs immigration service that allows clients to go through lots of immigration options in terms of countries like Australia, Canada, Denmark, UK, USA, Lithuania, Latvia and many more.
Ventured into the Immigration business in 1994, Abhinav tops in reliability and credited for offering immense success to the customers by offering the best solution. Apart from being the best Immigration Consultancy in Hyderabad, Abhinav established its branches in various other cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Pune and Bangalore, and highlighted success as a tradition of the consultancy.
Run by Mr. Ajay Sharma, identified as a Principle Immigration Consultant, Abhinav earned expertise in understanding the world of its clients and offers the best possible service by knowing their needs at reasonable costs. Moreover, those who are not able to decide which country will be the best destination or which visa program will be the most suitable for them, Abhinav serves them passionately by offering plethora of options unless they choose the best suitable option.
Due to the growing popularity of entertainment streaming websites like Hulu more and more people in the UK and Canada are looking for easy and cost effective ways in which they can legally access these websites. The problem is that websites like Hulu and Netflix restrict their services to specific locations. However, with the use of a Hulu VPN in UK anyone can very easily gain legal access to these websites and can begin enjoying all the streaming entertainment they want to take advantage of. This is by and far the easiest way that you can go about watching Hulu in Canada or Netflix in the UK.
In order to acquire a Hulu VPN in UK the first thing you will need to do is run a quick online search for service providers. When you do this you will be surprised to discover that there are literally hundreds of such providers. At this point you will need to take a little time to begin comparing these services providers. Always be certain to fully investigate each and every VPN service that you are considering making use of. You want to do this to ensure that you are finding a company that has unlimited bandwidth and that guarantees high speed streaming.
When it comes to watching Hulu in Canada you should keep the following information in mind. This information has assisted hundreds of individuals in the UK and in Canada in choosing the very best VPN service provider available to them.
The first thing you should be aware of is the type of devices that you will be using to access Netflix and Hulu. Many people just want to use a PC or MAC to access these websites while others want to use their mobile phones or gaming systems. You should be aware that many VPN services available are limited to PC or MAC use only. Therefore, if you do want to use other electronic devices you will need to make use of a VPN that permits this and is capable of this.
Many VPNs limit the amount of bandwidth that you are capable of using each month with their service. This is one of the most important things that you will want to look into. If you desire to watch a high volume of movies and television shows using one of these services then you will most likely want to only consider those services that do in fact offer unlimited bandwidth.
You will also want to consider speed. Many VPN services reroute their services so much that their speed rates are really low. If you desire to experience high streaming quality then you should only rely on those service providers that guarantee high speeds and that dont over-route their services.
One of the very best service providers that you can choose to subscribe to is UnoTelly. They are a top rated VPN service that specializes in providing individuals in the UK and in Canada with access to the very best US based streaming entertainment websites like Netflix and Hulu. They offer fast speeds, unlimited bandwidth and very competitive pricing.
Vancouver criminal law is known to deal with criminal lawyers or attorneys who match the enterprise needs of their clients with having skills and information to function across the nation competitively.
Globalization has been changing the way of working in different fields and so one is wrong if believes that criminal law Vancouver is confined to work in the nation only. The fact is that criminal attorneys are anticipated to have skills to perform competitively across national borders also.
This article will help you to know how criminal defense attorneys have been becoming more competitive in their domain in Vancouver. Following are the points which will help you to understand this fact in detail.
Degree of knowledge
Lawyers have widened their knowledge in terms of law and jurisdictions and thus have started having the degree of knowledge that concerns or deals global legal system. For this, they started working in partnerships with attorneys or lawyers belonging to other jurisdictions. Knowledge is comprised to have adequate and fair information on the aspects like prosecution, arrest, or defense of a suspect.
Multi-jurisdictional legal systems
Practicing internationally helps the lawyers to remain aware of multi-jurisdictional legal systems and to gain extensive experience in legal systems. Appropriate knowledge helps such attorneys to practice competitively and get experience in dealing different legal matters like corporate fraud, criminal obstruction, bankruptcy and much more.
Well, international abilities of lawyers make them to get fame in and outside the boundary. The past fifteen years have marked several amendments and advancements in the international criminal law and so the lawyers work and practice in the way to remain informed of all such changes so as to legally represent the clients properly. And to get rapid development in practice, lawyers work on empirical, exploration and theoretical which are the three goals of international criminal law.
International academic standards
Law colleges in Canada are aware that skills and knowledge are required to let one gain international criminal law abilities and thus they have started imparting education in the same direction. Latest education patterns have now started dealing all necessary academic set of subjects that can fit the requirement of international standards.
Best job opportunities
The law professions are counted among the hardest occupations existing these days. Moreover, it has been also observed that criminal lawyers having international law skills and knowledge have been getting best job opportunities these days. This is the reason why it has been getting common to see professional criminal lawyers in Vancouver receiving training for multi-jurisdictional legal systems.
Hence, these features are enough to illustrate the capabilities of criminal attorneys in Vancouver.
John Buchanan is a professional criminal defense attorney who is known for his 25 years of experience in serving clients who need legal representations for charges like domestic assault, drug charges and different shoplifting charges in Vancouver, BC.